The Industrial Revolution that took place throughout the 18th and the 19th centuries had major effects which influenced every aspect of society and life such as, urbanization, imperialism and nationalism. The industrial revolution had an unfathomable effect on shaping the modern world to what it is today. Before the revolution, society revolved around farming and agriculture. There were only two social classes, the nobility and the working class. Little did they know, that their lives were about to change dramatically and continue changing for the next generations to come.
Urbanization is the movement of people to city areas. There are many reasons why urbanization occurred on a large-scale during the industrial revolution. The first, and most obvious cause is the high demand for workers in the cities to run the newly emerging factories. People thought that they would make more money working in the factories than working on their farms. Also, the Enclosure Movement which happened in England, forced farmers to move to the cities. Landowners closed off their farms and so small farmers lost their jobs and were forced to move to the cities to find new jobs. Rapid population growth also led people to move out of the smaller rural areas and move into the big cities.
When people got to the cities and found work, they were in for a huge shock. The difference between the lives of the business owners, or the entrepreneurs, and the workers was enormous. Instead of being divided on the grounds of nobility and the working class, they were said to be the “Haves” vs. the “Have-Nots”. The people who started factories and businesses in the industrial revolution, like Rockefeller, became immensely wealthy, while the workers who did all of ...
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... the entire product. This increased speed and efficiency made mass production possible, and made more products available for even cheaper.
The increased military power made westernization inevitable. It was virtually impossible for the industrialized countries not to be successful against the undeveloped colonies. This guaranteed that they would have the upper hand including endless influence when attempting to extend their empires. It was now more possible than ever that they will succeed in westernizing all of the colonies that fall under their rule.
In retrospect, without the industrial revolution, mankind would be ultimately “lost” in every aspect of our societies. All of the advancements in transportation, trade, the economy, supply and demand and even our basic ideologies of modern life ultimately stem out of the effects of the industrial revolution.
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Durkheim argued that division of labor influenced the moral constitution of societies by creating moral rules for human conduct that influenced social order in ways that made industrial societies distinct from the pre-industrial ones. It created a civilized, individual man, capable of being interested in everything but attaching himself exclusively to nothing, able to savor everything and understand everything, found the means to combine and epitomize within himself the finest aspects of civilization. For Durkheim, tradition and custom, collectively defined as culture were the basis of distinction of the simpler societies which defined their mechanical form of solidarity that they exhibit. The modern societies, according to Durkheim, were characterized civilization (Durkheim, 1984: 3-4).
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