A network of scientific and engineering membership organizations that recognize a role for scientists and engineers in human rights .
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This module aims to introduce students to the three principal regional systems for the protection of human rights (in Africa, the Americas and Europe). The module will explain why regional systems for the promotion and protection of human rights have been developed in addition to the global UN system, and explore the similarities and differences between those three systems. The various mechanisms for the enforcement of rights will be examined and their effectiveness assessed. The content of selected rights will analysed in detail.
"The right of all people to benefit from scientific progress is spurring new research by science and human rights practitioners and informing organizations how to secure those benefits."
The strength and well being of a society is largely determined by the capacity of its members to work cooperatively together towards common goals (a common good). The most significant disruption of this strength is related to the integrity of human character with regard to how we relate to and work with one another. Socrates spent most of his life in the context of Athenian democracy. In Socrates' Athens, the role of the citizen was much more central to the functioning of Athenian democracy than it is in the democratic republic of the .. Male citizens were required to participate in their government through mandatory military service and through their participation (randomly chosen) on the council. The ability of all citizens to relate to one another with integrity was of the utmost importance because acquiring a high position in the government was possible for any male citizen who was at least 30 years old. When Socrates asked questions such as "What is justice?" or "What is virtue?", he was not interested in academic abstractions. Socrates' goal was to learn what it meant to live as a just and virtuous citizen. This was of the utmost importance to Socrates because he knew that the good character of individuals contributed directly to the survival and well being of his whole society. When the learning and thinking habits of the people become slack, that is, when the masses do not live examined lives, democracy becomes a fast road to tyranny. When the justice and skillful virtue of the human character of individual citizens is harmed, society is harmed. This reality underlays Socrates' comment in Plato's Republic (564a) that, "tyranny is probably established out of no other regime than democracy...the greatest and most savage slavery out of the extreme of freedom."
Constitutional Rights of Persons with Disabilities: An Analysis of 193 National Constitutions
Amy Raub, Isabel Latz, Aleta Sprague, Michael Ashley Stein, and Jody Heymann