In Germany, the national government funded the universities and the research programs of the leading professors. It was impossible for professors who were not approved by Berlin to train graduate students . In the United States, by contrast, private universities and state universities alike were independent of the federal government. Independence was high, but funding was low. The breakthrough came from private foundations, which began regularly supporting research in science and history; large corporations sometimes supported engineering programs. The postdoctoral fellowship was established by the Rockefeller Foundation in 1919. Meanwhile, the leading universities, in cooperation with the learned societies, set up a network of scholarly journals. " Publish or perish " became the formula for faculty advancement in the research universities. After World War II, state universities across the country expanded greatly in undergraduate enrollment, and eagerly added research programs leading to masters or doctorate degrees. Their graduate faculties had to have a suitable record of publication and research grants. Late in the 20th century, "publish or perish" became increasingly important in colleges and smaller universities. 
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Simulation von Sensoren in einem Brennstoffzellensystem
Please join us in congratulating all of these students for reaching these important milestones!
Nicholas Croggon is the Turza Family Fellow in the Department of Art History & Archaeology at Columbia University, where he is completing his PhD in modern and contemporary art. Nicholas graduated with first class honours in art history and law from the University of Melbourne, and previously worked as a public interest lawyer. He is the co-founder and co-editor of the Australian contemporary art journal Discipline .
“Bulk Matrix Composition of Northwest Africa 5343, a CK3 Chondrite”