In this 2017 image taken from drone video provided by the University of Hawaii, a crew member of the Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) Mission 5 team stands outside the facility on Mauna Loa volcano, Big Island, Hawaii. (Photo: University of Hawaii via AP)
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After the Russian Revolution, psychology was heavily promoted by the Bolsheviks as a way to engineer the "New Man" of socialism. Thus, university psychology departments trained large numbers of students, for whom positions were made available at schools, workplaces, cultural institutions, and in the military. An especial focus was pedology , the study of child development, regarding which Lev Vygotsky became a prominent writer.  The Bolsheviks also promoted free love and embranced the doctrine of psychoanalysis as an antidote to sexual repression.  Although pedology and intelligence testing fell out of favor in 1936, psychology maintained its privileged position as an instrument of the Soviet state.  Stalinist purges took a heavy toll and instilled a climate of fear in the profession, as elsewhere in Soviet society.  Following World War II, Jewish psychologists past and present (including Vygotsky, A. R. Luria , and Aron Zalkind) were denounced; Ivan Pavlov (posthumously) and Stalin himself were aggrandized as heroes of Soviet psychology.  Soviet academics was speedily liberalized during the Khrushchev Thaw , and cybernetics, linguistics, genetics, and other topics became acceptable again. There emerged a new field called "engineering psychology" which studied mental aspects of complex jobs (such as pilot and cosmonaut). Interdisciplinary studies became popular and scholars such as Georgy Shchedrovitsky developed systems theory approaches to human behavior.