Arising further from this notion of economic determinism11 is the concept of relations of production which transcends property relations; these reflect the relationship between the owners of the means of production (capitalists) and the workers (ploretariat). According to Timasheff, “These relations, according to Marx develop independently of human will. Moreover, the organization of production (called by Marx ‘the economic substructure of society` not only limits but also, in the final analysis, shapes the whole superstructure: political organization, law, religion, philosophy, art, literature, science, and morality itself.”12 The assertion that “relations develop” independently of human will suggests more mysterious force which propels individuals in collectivities known as society. However, Marx’s explanation of this phenomenon is made in the second postulate.
Measurements and categorizations in scientific work are also usually accompanied by estimates of their uncertainty or disclaimers concerning the scope of initial observations. The uncertainty is often estimated by making repeated measurements of the desired quantity. Uncertainties may also be calculated by consideration of the uncertainties of the individual underlying quantities that are used. Counts of things, such as the number of people in a nation at a particular time, may also have an uncertainty due to limitations of the method used. Counts may only represent a sample of desired quantities, with an uncertainty that depends upon the sampling method used and the number of samples taken (see the central limit theorem ). Similarly, the scope of initial observations may be recorded via count and / or qualitative assessments of the nature and method of previous studies, which allows researchers to expand and / or replicate categorizations dependent upon and contextualized via a specific scope of observational data.
Disengagement theory, which has many critics, suggests that people slowly disengage from social life as they age and enter the elderly stage. More »