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After the Russian Revolution, psychology was heavily promoted by the Bolsheviks as a way to engineer the "New Man" of socialism. Thus, university psychology departments trained large numbers of students, for whom positions were made available at schools, workplaces, cultural institutions, and in the military. An especial focus was pedology , the study of child development, regarding which Lev Vygotsky became a prominent writer.  The Bolsheviks also promoted free love and embranced the doctrine of psychoanalysis as an antidote to sexual repression.  Although pedology and intelligence testing fell out of favor in 1936, psychology maintained its privileged position as an instrument of the Soviet state.  Stalinist purges took a heavy toll and instilled a climate of fear in the profession, as elsewhere in Soviet society.  Following World War II, Jewish psychologists past and present (including Vygotsky, A. R. Luria , and Aron Zalkind) were denounced; Ivan Pavlov (posthumously) and Stalin himself were aggrandized as heroes of Soviet psychology.  Soviet academics was speedily liberalized during the Khrushchev Thaw , and cybernetics, linguistics, genetics, and other topics became acceptable again. There emerged a new field called "engineering psychology" which studied mental aspects of complex jobs (such as pilot and cosmonaut). Interdisciplinary studies became popular and scholars such as Georgy Shchedrovitsky developed systems theory approaches to human behavior. 
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Consider that according to Aron Gurwitsch (1901-1973), “Husserl once referred to” Dorion Cairns (1901-1973) as “the future of phenomenology” in America, and as professor of philosophy and psychology and “arguably Husserl’s closest continuer” Cairns claimed, “It is an historical fact that Husserl’s investigations of subjectivity always had a philosophical goal. Their primary goal was never psychological. The results of his investigations can nevertheless be interpreted psychologically, as he himself indicated” (Cairns, 2010, pp. 1-2). Further, “A psychological interpretation of Husserl’s results is a simplification . The most abstruse of his methodological theories, the theory of transcendental-phenomenological reduction, is disregarded when his results are interpreted psychologically” (Cairns, 2010, p. 2). Yet, Cairns wavered, this should not stop “the psychologist who wants to discover in Husserl’s writings whatever is relevant to psychology as a natural science” (Cairns, 2010, p. 2).
Bradbury and Fincham Bradbury and Fincham (1990) Meta-analysis of research on attributions in married couples Spouses in happy relationships tended to focus on their partner’s positive behavior as part of the person’s character. They were more likely to make attributions that locate the cause of 1. positive events to dispositional factors in the partner (. … Continue reading “Bradbury and Fincham”